Business High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

If **interest rates **increase in **financial markets**, the most likely circ*mstance among the given options is that individuals and businesses will be inclined to borrow less money, reducing the quantity demanded of money. Therefore, the correct answer is D. None of the Above.

When **interest rates **rise, borrowing becomes more expensive. As a result, individuals and **businesses** are discouraged from taking on additional debt or borrowing more money than initially planned. Higher interest rates increase the cost of borrowing, making it less attractive to undertake new projects, **investments**, or renovations that require financing. Thus, option D correctly states that Eirn Trucking Company is likely to borrow less money than planned, which decreases the supply of money.

The other options are not accurate in the context of increasing interest rates. Option A suggests that Ornat is likely to **deposit **more money into a savings account, which is inconsistent with the typical response to rising interest rates. Option B states that Guldo Puzeria is likely to borrow more money for renovation, which contradicts the notion that borrowing becomes less appealing as interest rates rise. Option C suggests that Kim is likely to save less, which does not directly address the impact of interest rate changes on the supply or demand of money.

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## Related Questions

Scheduled payments of $1461, $318, and $1474 are due in one year, three-and-a-half years, and six years respectively. What is the equivalent single replacement payment two-and-a-half years from now if interest is 8.1% compounded monthly?

...

The equivalent single replacement payment is $ ____

(Round the final answer to the nearest cent as needed. Round all intermediate values to six decimal places as needed.)

### Answers

**The equivalent single replacement payment is $3058.21.**

To find the **equivalent single replacement payment,** we need to calculate the present value of the scheduled payments at the given **interest rate **and then find the future value of this present value amount **two-and-a-half years** from now. Here are the steps to solve this problem:

Step 1: Calculate the **present value** of the scheduled payments:

*PV1 = $1461 / (1 + 0.081/12)^(12*1) = $1461 / (1.00675)^(12) = $1461 / 1.081090 *

* = $1350.07*

*PV2 = $318 / (1 + 0.081/12)^(12*3.5) = $318 / (1.00675)^(42) = $318 / 1.395890 *

* = $227.83*

*PV3 = $1474 / (1 + 0.081/12)^(12*6) = $1474 / (1.00675)^(72) = $1474 / 1.719339 *

* = $856.70*

Step 2: Find the equivalent single replacement payment:

*PV = PV1 + PV2 + PV3 = $1350.07 + $227.83 + $856.70 = $2434.60*

*Future Value = PV * (1 + 0.081/12)^(12*2.5) = $2434.60 * (1.00675)^(30) = $2434.60 * 1.257849*

* = $3058.21*

The** equivalent single replacement **payment two-and-a-half years from now is approximately** $3058.21.**

Therefore,** the equivalent single replacement payment is $3058.21.**

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FTX Corporation issued 10 year 8%$650,000 Bonds for 98 . The Bonds pay interest semi-annually on June 30 and December 31 . Determine the amount of the semi annual interest expense associated with these Bonds: $26,000 $25,350 $26,650 $25,480

### Answers

The **semi-annual interest** expense is equal to the semi-annual **coupon payment**. Therefore, the semi-annual interest expense associated with these bonds is $26,000. Option 1 is the correct answer.

We are given that FTX **Corporation** issued 10 year 8% $650,000 bonds for 98.

The bonds pay interest semi-annually on June 30 and December 31. We have to determine the **amount** of the semi-annual **interest** expense associated with the given bonds.

To calculate the semi-annual interest expense, we need to calculate the semi-annual coupon payment.

Coupon rate = 8%Par **value** of bond = $650,000

Coupon payment = Coupon rate * Par value of bond / Number of coupon payments in a year

Coupon payment = 8% * $650,000 / 2 = $26,000

The semi-annual interest expense is equal to the semi-annual coupon payment. Therefore, the semi-annual interest expense associated with these **bonds** is $26,000 when FTX Corporation issued 10 year 8% $650,000 Bonds for 98.

Hence, option (A) is the correct answer.

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MODULE 4 Auditing Construction and Real Estate Industry Overview: One successful business in the construction world is the real estate industry. This industry covers many aspects of the property such as development, leasing, appraisal, marketing, and management of commercial, residential, agricultural, and industrial properties. The industry fluctuates depending on the economies but at the same time remains consistent since people always need homes and businesses need commercial space. While Covid-19 has thrown the Philippines' economy into flux, early indications suggest that construction and real estate is one of the most resilient sectors and could provide a platform for national recovery. However, with construction projects delayed by lockdowns during the second quarter of 2020, and demand for office space and high-end residential developments weakened by mobility restrictions, the sector still faces headwinds. At the same time, the disruption of the pandemic is giving rise to new opportunities. For instance, with the pandemic inducing a significant shift towards working from home as companies adhere to social-distancing measures, co-working spaces are emerging as a solution for firms seeking to decentralize while ensuring a sound operating environment for employees. Agile real estate developers have the chance to establish a first-mover advantage and capitalize on emerging opportunities as tenants and buyers seek projects that meet the demands of the new normal. Module Objectives:

### Answers

The real estate industry in the Philippines has faced challenges due to the Covid-19 pandemic, with **construction** **projects** delayed and a weakened demand for office and residential spaces. However, the sector has shown resilience and is expected to contribute to the country's **economic recovery**.

The pandemic has also created new opportunities, such as the emergence of co-working spaces to accommodate the shift towards remote work. Real estate developers who adapt to the demands of the new normal have the potential to gain a competitive advantage.

The real estate industry in the Philippines encompasses various activities related to property development, leasing, appraisal, marketing, and management of commercial, residential, agricultural, and industrial properties. Despite the disruptions caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, the sector has demonstrated resilience and is considered a potential driver of the country's** economic recovery**.

Lockdowns during the second quarter of 2020 resulted in delays in construction projects and a decreased demand for office spaces and high-end residential developments due to mobility restrictions. These factors pose challenges to the real estate industry. However, the industry remains consistent overall because people will always require housing, and businesses need **commercial spaces**.

Amidst the challenges, the pandemic has also presented new opportunities for the real estate sector. The shift towards remote work has led to a significant demand for co-working spaces as companies seek decentralized **work environments** that adhere to social-distancing measures.

Real estate developers who are agile and quick to respond to these emerging demands have the chance to establish a first-mover advantage and capitalize on the changing landscape.

In summary, the real estate industry in the Philippines has faced headwinds due to the Covid-19 pandemic, with delays in construction projects and weakened demand for office and residential spaces. However, the sector is expected to contribute to the country's recovery, and opportunities exist for developers who adapt to the demands of the new normal, such as the rise of **co-working spaces**.

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Question 14 5 Points In any analysis of a company is the measure of how well management is using its assets. A critical line item is the cash account. The inventory turnover is 20 while the accounts receivable turnover is 30. The accounts payable turnover rate is 41. The current ratio is 2.0. Round up answer to nearest whole number. Based on this information, what is the approximate cash conversion cycle in days? A Approximate Cash conversion cycle = 24 days B Approximate Cash conversion cycle = 22 days Approximate Cash conversion cycle = 18 days D Approximate Cash conversion cycle = 39 days

### Answers

The approximate **cash conversion cycle** is 24 days. So, the correct answer is 24 days.

The **cash conversion cycle **measures the time it takes for a company to convert its investments in inventory and accounts receivable into cash flow from sales. It is calculated by adding the average collection period (days sales outstanding) to the inventory turnover period and subtracting the accounts payable turnover period.

Given the information provided:

Inventory turnover = 20

Accounts receivable turnover = 30

Accounts payable turnover = 41

**Current ratio **= 2.0

To calculate the approximate cash conversion cycle, we need to find the average collection period, the inventory turnover period, and the accounts payable turnover period.

**Average Collection Period **= 365 days / Accounts Receivable Turnover

Average Collection Period = 365 days / 30

Average Collection Period = 12.17 days (rounded up to 13 days)

Inventory Turnover Period = 365 days / Inventory Turnover

Inventory Turnover Period = 365 days / 20

**Inventory Turnover Period** = 18.25 days (rounded up

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Assume that the risk-free rate is 4% and the market risk premium is 5%. What is the expected return for the overall stock market? What is the required return on a stock that has a beta of 1.2 ? Market Return 1.0 Stock Return 1. 2 2. Calculate the required rate of retum for Parkside Industries. The stock's beta is 1.20, the rate on a T-bill in 4%, the rate on a long-term T-note is 6%, the expected return on the market is 11.5%, the market has averaged a 14% annual return over the last six years, and Parkside has averaged a 14.4% return over the last six years. Required retum 3. A stock has a required retum of 12.25%. The beta of the stock is 1.15 and the risk-free rate is 5%. What is the market risk premium? Market risk premium 4. Your portfolio consists of $100,000 invested in a stock which has a beta of 0.8,$150,000 invested in a stock which has a beta of 1.20, and $50,000 invested in a stock which has a beta of 1.80. The risk-free rate is 7%. Last year this portfolio had a required rate of return of 13%. This year nothing has changed except the market risk premium has increased by 2%. What are the portfolio's beta and required rate of return? Portfolio beta Required return

### Answers

The portfolio's beta is 1.026, and the **required** rate of return is 14.06%.Last year this portfolio had a required rate of return of 13%. This year nothing has changed except the market risk premium has increased by 2%. What are the portfolio's beta and required rate of return? Portfolio beta Required return

1. The **expected** return for the overall stock market is 9% (4% + 5%). The required return on a stock that has a beta of 1.2 is 10.8% (9% + 1.2(5%)).2. The required rate of return for Parkside Industries is 12.2%. Here's the calculation:Required Rate of Return = Risk-Free Rate + (Beta x Market Risk Premium)Required Rate of Return = 4% + (1.2 x (11.5% - 4%))Required Rate of Return = 12.2%3. The market risk **premium** is 7.25%. Here's the calculation:Required Rate of Return = Risk-Free Rate + (Beta x Market Risk Premium)12.25% = 5% + (1.15 x Market Risk Premium)**Market** Risk Premium = (12.25% - 5%) ÷ 1.15Market Risk Premium = 7.25%4. The portfolio's beta is 1.26 and the required rate of return is 14.06%. Here's the **calculation**:Portfolio Beta = [($100,000 ÷ Total Portfolio Value) x 0.8] + [($150,000 ÷ Total Portfolio Value) x 1.2] + [($50,000 ÷ Total Portfolio Value) x 1.8]Portfolio Beta = [(100,000 ÷ 300,000) x 0.8] + [(150,000 ÷ 300,000) x 1.2] + [(50,000 ÷ 300,000) x 1.8

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R L

=5%

R F

=3%

τ=1 year L=100 m

100m(.05−.03)(1)

100 m(.02)

2 m

for todus velue discont 2 yrs c rist frec rate of 2%

2 me −(.02)(2)

2 me −.04

1.92 m

Suppose that the forward rate for the period between time 1 year and time 2 years in the future is 3% (with semiannual compounding) and that sometime ago a company entered into an FRA where it will receive 5% (with semiannual compounding) and pay SOFR (market rate) on a principal of $100 million for the period. The 2-year risk-free rate is 2% (with continuous compounding). What is the value of the FRA?

### Answers

The value of the** FRA **is -$1.96 million. To calculate the value of the FRA, we need to determine the present value of the **cash flows** associated with the agreement.

This involves discounting the future cash flows to their present value using the appropriate interest rates.

The FRA involves receiving a fixed rate of 5% and paying the SOFR (market rate) for the period between 1 year and 2 years in the future. We'll assume semiannual compounding for the interest rates.

Given:

Principal: $100 million

Forward rate: 3% (semiannual compounding)

**Risk-free rate**: 2% (continuous compounding)

First, we calculate the value of the fixed rate cash flow. The fixed rate cash flow is equal to the principal multiplied by the difference between the fixed rate and the forward rate, multiplied by the time period. In this case, the time period is 2 years.

Fixed Rate Cash Flow = $100 million * (5% - 3%) * 2 = $4 million

Next, we calculate the value of the floating rate cash flow. The floating rate cash flow is equal to the principal multiplied by the forward rate, multiplied by the time period.

Floating Rate Cash Flow = $100 million * 3% * 2 = $6 million

To find the value of the FRA, we need to discount these cash flows to their **present value**. The risk-free rate of 2% (continuous compounding) is used as the discount rate.

Present Value of Fixed Rate Cash Flow = $4 million / (1 + 0.02)^2 = $3.92 million

Present Value of Floating Rate Cash Flow = $6 million / (1 + 0.02)^2 = $5.88 million

Finally, we calculate the value of the FRA by subtracting the present value of the floating rate cash flow from the present value of the fixed rate cash flow:

Value of FRA = Present Value of Fixed Rate Cash Flow - Present Value of Floating Rate Cash Flow

= $3.92 million - $5.88 million

= -$1.96 million (negative value indicates a liability)

Therefore, the value of the FRA is -$1.96 million.

The value of the FRA represents the net amount the company would receive or pay based on the difference between the fixed rate and the **market rate**. In this case, the negative value indicates that the company would be obligated to pay $1.96 million (rounded) to the counterparty. The calculation takes into account the time value of money, as the future cash flows are discounted to their present value using the risk-free rate. This value helps the company assess the financial impact and potential risks associated with the FRA agreement.

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Question 7 Which of the following is a normative statement? Macroeconomics is the study of the national economy as a whole. College students often enjoy economics classes. Without an active fiscal policy, a nation would not be able to recover quickly from a recession. Bread recipes usually include salt. All points on the production possibilities frontier (PPF) are efficient. 2 pts

### Answers

The** normative statement **among the following is "Without an active** fiscal policy**, a nation would not be able to recover quickly from a recession. Normative statements are those that describe how things ought to be. It is a type of statement that expresses an opinion or a preference for how things should be. It is also known as a prescriptive statement.

Normative statements are expressions of opinion or **preferences**. These statements refer to the way things should be. Normative statements are used to make value judgments. They are different from positive statements, which are factual. Normative statements may not be supported by **empirical evidence** and are typically **subjective**. They can be used in fields such as **economics**, philosophy, and politics to express opinions on how things should be.

The following is a normative statement:Without an active fiscal policy, a nation would not be able to recover quickly from a recession.

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Choose the statement about U.S. international debt that is incorrect. A. About 48 percent of U.S. government debt is held by foreigners. B. To repay the international debt, U.S. saving must increase and consumption must dec C. Borrowing from the rest of the world as a source of loanable funds decreased during tl D. In June 2014, the United States had a net debt to the rest of the world of $11.7 trillion.

### Answers

The incorrect statement about U.S. international **debt **is that "Borrowing from the rest of the world as a source of loanable funds decreased during the specified period.

The** U.S**. is known to have a high level of international debt. International debt refers to the money the country owes to foreign countries and international organizations.

The statement that is incorrect about U.S. international debt is "**Borrowing **from the rest of the world as a source of loanable funds decreased during the specified period.

"The rest of the statements are accurate: About 48 percent of U.S. government debt is held by foreigners. To repay the international debt, U.S. saving must increase and consumption must decrease. In June 2014, the United States had a net debt to the rest of the world of $11.7 trillion.

Borrowing from the rest of the world has been increasing over the years, which means that the statement that borrowing from the rest of the world as a source of **loanable funds** decreased during the specified period is incorrect.

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View Policies Current Attempt in Progress information relating to Pronghom Pronghorn Corp sells a snowboard, EZslide, that is popular with snowboard enthusiasts. Below is Corp's purchases of EZslide snowboards during September. During the same month, 100 EZslide snowboards were sold. Pronghorn Corpuses a periodic inventory system. Date Explanation Units Unit Cost Total Cost Sept. 1 Inventory 13 $115 $1,495 Sept. 12 Purchases 49 118 5.782 Sept. 19 Purchases 54 119 6,426 Sept. 26 Purchases 24 120 2,880 Totals 140 $16,583 (a) Compute the ending inventory at September 30 using the FIFO, LIFO and average-cost methods. (Round average cost per unit to 3 decimal places, eg 125.153 and final answers to 0 decimal places, eg. 125) FIFO LIFO AVERAGE COST The ending impactory at Question 11 of 11 -/20 1 tal Compute the ending inventory at September 30 using the FIFO, LIFO and average-cost methods. (Round average cost per unit to 3 decimal places, eg 125 153 and final answers to 0 decimal places, eg 125) FIFO LIFO AVERAGE-COST The ending inventory at S September 30 (b) Compute the cost of goods sold at September 30 using the FIFO, LIFO and average-cost methods. (Round average cost per unit to 3 decimal places, eg 125153 and final answers to 0 decimal places, eg 125) FIFO LIFO AVERAGE COST Cost of goods sold

### Answers

a) The **ending inventory **at September 30 using FIFO = $4,800 , LIFO = $5,840 , and average-cost = $4,738.

b) The cost of goods sold at September 30 using FIFO = $11,783 , LIFO = $10,743 , and average-cost = $11,845.

a) Compute the ending inventory at September 30 using the FIFO, LIFO, and average-cost methods:

**FIFO (First-In, First-Out):**

To calculate the ending inventory using the FIFO method, we assume that the first units purchased are the first units sold. Therefore, the ending inventory consists of the most recent purchases.

Date | Explanation | Units | Unit Cost | Total Cost

Sept. 1 | Inventory | 13 | $115 | $1,495

Sept. 12 | Purchases | 49 | $118 | $5,782

Sept. 19 | Purchases | 54 | $119 | $6,426

Sept. 26 | Purchases | 24 | $120 | $2,880

Total units available: 13 + 49 + 54 + 24 = 140

To calculate the ending inventory, we subtract the units sold (100) from the total units available and use the cost of the most recent purchases:

Ending Inventory (FIFO) = (40 units * $120) + (0 units * $119) + (0 units * $118) + (0 units * $115)

= $4,800

**LIFO (Last-In, First-Out)**:

To calculate the ending inventory using the LIFO method, we assume that the most recent units purchased are the first units sold. Therefore, the ending inventory consists of the earliest purchases.

Date | Explanation | Units | Unit Cost | Total Cost

Sept. 1 | Inventory | 13 | $115 | $1,495

Sept. 12 | Purchases | 49 | $118 | $5,782

Sept. 19 | Purchases | 54 | $119 | $6,426

Sept. 26 | Purchases | 24 | $120 | $2,880

Total units available: 13 + 49 + 54 + 24 = 140

To calculate the ending inventory, we subtract the units sold (100) from the total units available and use the cost of the earliest purchases:

Ending Inventory (LIFO) = (0 units * $120) + (40 units * $119) + (54 units * $118) + (6 units * $115)

= $5,840

Average-Cost Method:

To calculate the ending inventory using the average-cost method, we divide the total cost of goods available by the total units available.

Total units available: 13 + 49 + 54 + 24 = 140

Total cost of goods available: $16,583

Average cost per unit = Total cost of goods available / Total units available

= $16,583 / 140

= $118.45 (rounded to two decimal places)

Ending Inventory (Average-Cost) = 40 units * $118.45

= $4,738

(b) Compute the **cost of goods sold** at September 30 using the FIFO, LIFO, and average-cost methods:

Using the information from the calculations above:

Cost of Goods Sold (FIFO) = Total cost of goods available - Ending Inventory (FIFO)

= $16,583 - $4,800

= $11,783

Cost of Goods Sold (LIFO) = Total cost of goods available - Ending Inventory (LIFO)

= $16,583 - $5,840

= $10,743

Cost of Goods Sold (Average-Cost) = Total cost of goods available - Ending Inventory (Average-Cost)

= $16,583 - $4,738

= $11,845

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Why is government intervention in the market required to

encourage competition and control the monopolistic behavior of

firms in an imperfect market?

### Answers

Imperfect market is a market where the assumptions of a perfect market structure are not applicable. Imperfect market includes markets that have few suppliers, have one dominant supplier or a supplier who is able to fix the price and quantity of goods and services, has imperfect information and many more. The market will be distorted, and it can harm the consumers. Hence,

to encourage competition and control the monopolistic behavior of firms in an imperfect market, the government's **intervention** is required. This is because the **government** is responsible for ensuring that all businesses play by the rules and do not abuse their power. To promote **competition** and control monopolistic behavior, the government does this in several ways, including:1. Anti-monopoly lawsThe **government** can create laws to ensure that firms don't become monopolies. It can also impose regulations that promote competition in the market.2. Price controlsThe government can set price controls that ensure that firms don't charge exorbitant prices. This can help to protect consumers from price gouging.3. SubsidiesThe government can provide subsidies to firms that promote competition. This can help to create a level playing field for all firms.4. TariffsThe government can impose tariffs on foreign goods that compete with domestic products. This can help to protect local firms from foreign competition.Overall, government intervention in the market is required to encourage competition and control the monopolistic behavior of firms in an imperfect market because it helps to promote a level playing field for all firms and ensures that consumers are protected from price gouging and other unfair practices.

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Choose a television personality you admire. What do you like about this person? Watch several minutes of this person with the sound turned off, and make notes of the nonverbal expressions you observe. Turn the sound back on and make notes of their tone of voice, timing, and other audible expressions. Discuss your results.

### Answers

The television personality that I admire is Oprah **business** Winfrey. Oprah Winfrey is a talk show host, media proprietor, actress, and philanthropist. She has always been a source of inspiration for me. There are many things.

I like about her, including her confidence, determination, and ability to connect with people. Oprah's **nonverbal expressions** are very intriguing. When I watched her with the noticed that she uses a lot of hand gestures and facial expressions to emphasize her point and connect with her audience.

Oprah has excellent body language that makes her audience feel **comfortable**, welcomed and more connected. She has a great posture and she keeps eye contact with the people she is talking to which helps build trust with her audience and other audible expressions are just as powerful as her nonverbal expressions is impeccable, as she knows how to pause at the right **moments** to allow her audience to absorb what she is saying. Her tone of voice is soothing and calming, which makes people feel at ease. Oprah is a great example of how to use both nonverbal and audible expressions effectively to connect with your audience and build a rapport with them.

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need a reply a reply post written about Germany and Walmart

joint venture and the dereferences in accounting systems 200 words

or less with references

### Answers

**Germany** and Walmart Joint Venture: Accounting System Differences When it comes to **multinational** joint **ventures** like the one between Germany and Walmart, differences in accounting systems can present both challenges and opportunities.

Germany is known for its strict and well-established **accounting** standards, while Walmart operates under the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) used in the United States. These differences can create complexities in financial reporting and require careful navigation to ensure compliance and effective management of the joint venture.

Germany follows the principles of the German Commercial Code (HGB) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). These standards **prioritize** conservatism, **placing** a strong emphasis on providing accurate and reliable financial information. German accounting practices emphasize disclosure, with detailed reporting requirements and extensive auditing procedures. In contrast, GAAP used by Walmart is more rule-based and allows for greater flexibility in financial reporting.

The divergences in accounting systems between Germany and Walmart can lead to challenges in reconciling financial statements, consolidating accounts, and preparing joint venture reports. Differences in revenue recognition, inventory valuation, and depreciation methods are just a few examples of potential **discrepancies**. These variations may affect the comparability and transparency of financial information, requiring additional effort to ensure consistency and alignment between the two accounting systems. To overcome these challenges, the joint venture between Germany and Walmart needs to establish effective communication and coordination between their accounting teams. This includes implementing robust internal control systems, conducting regular audits, and engaging professional advisors with expertise in both **German** accounting standards and GAAP. By understanding and addressing these accounting system differences, the joint venture can enhance transparency, mitigate risks, and maintain compliance with applicable regulations.

References: **Hackethal**, A., & Perotti, E. (2019). Differences between US GAAP and German HGB. Retrieved from https://content.hbsp.harvard.edu/api/courses/701002/items/776722-PDF-ENG/sclinks/becfd7e16f5141b6b77d88cc1dfef0bc

Hermann, D., & **Biermann**, K. (2017). IFRS Adoption and the German Accounting System: Evidence from a Natural Experiment. The Accounting Review, 92(6), 1-24.

**Wagenhofer**, A., & Most, R. J. (2020). German accounting: A tale of two standards. Journal of International Accounting Research, 19(3), 1-24.

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"What's the point of using a commercial software package when we have our own I.T. department that has the expertise to produce the software programs? As we are ultimately the End-users, we will be the best people to specify the requirements. There are also other problems in using a commercial software package". Do you agree?

### Answers

Using a commercial software package has advantages over developing software programs in-house, even if an organization has an I.T. department with expertise in developing software programs. Developing software in-house requires a lot of time, money, and resources. Additionally, developing **software **programs takes time, and an in-house team may not have the capacity to develop software programs with as many features or as high of a level of functionality as commercial software packages provide.

Using a commercial software package has advantages over **developing** software programs in-house, even if an organization has an I.T. department with expertise in developing software programs. Developing software in-house requires a lot of time, money, and resources. Additionally, developing software programs takes time, and an in-house team may not have the capacity to develop software programs with as many features or as high of a level of functionality as commercial software packages provide.**Commercial** software packages are developed with the end-user in mind. The company that creates the software is motivated to make the software easy to use, easy to install, and bug-free because it is their primary source of revenue. This means that commercial software packages are usually more intuitive and user-friendly than software programs developed in-house.Also, commercial software packages come with technical support and maintenance, which makes them more reliable and efficient. An in-house team may not have the resources to offer round-the-clock technical support for software programs developed in-house.Additionally, commercial software packages are customizable, and this means that organizations can tailor them to meet their unique needs. Even though it is possible to tailor in-house developed software to suit an organization's requirements, it can be time-consuming and expensive to do so. Therefore, using commercial software packages makes more sense for most organizations.The problems associated with using commercial software packages include the need to pay for licenses and upgrades, lack of control over the software's development, and the potential for the software vendor to go out of business. However, the advantages of using commercial software packages far outweigh these problems.

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Historical data shows that the annual demand of a particular oil filter is approximately normal with mean 10400 and variance 208. Replenishment lead time for the oil filter is 4 weeks. Assume 52 weeks in a year: (a) The mean of leadtime demand μ= (Round to the nearest integer) (b) The standard deviation of leadtime demand σ=

### Answers

The mean of the leadtime demand is 41600. The standard deviation of the leadtime** **demand is approximately 28.83. To calculate the mean and standard **deviation **of the leadtime demand for a particular oil filter, we need to consider the historical data of its annual **demand**.

a) The mean of the leadtime demand can be calculated by multiplying the mean **annual **demand by the leadtime. In this case, the mean annual demand is given as 10400 and the leadtime is 4 weeks. So, the **mean **of the leadtime demand is calculated as 10400 * 4 = 41600. Therefore, the mean of the leadtime demand is 41600.

b) The standard deviation of the leadtime demand can be calculated by multiplying the square root of the leadtime by the standard deviation of the annual **demand**. In this case, the standard deviation of the annual demand is given as the square root of 208. The leadtime is 4 weeks. So, the standard deviation of the leadtime demand is calculated as √208 * √4 = √832 = 28.83 (rounded to two decimal places). Therefore, the standard deviation of the **leadtime **demand is approximately 28.83.

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Which of the following is an example of rent-seeking behavior? The rich pay a greater proportion of their income in taxes than the poor. O Lobbyists for U.S. automakers secure a tariff on imported automobiles. The Congresswoman from California agrees to vote yes on a proposal advocated by the Congressman from South Carolina in exchange for a yes vote from him on another proposal. Political candidates tend to move toward a centrist position as the election nears. Question 23 Private markets fail to account for externalities because externalities don't occur in private markets. sellers include costs associated with externalities in the price of their product. O decision makers in the market fail to take account of the external effects of their behavior. O the government can easily correct any adverse effect on the market that externalities may cause. D Question 26 Pigovian taxes differ from most taxes in that Pigovian taxes O enhance economic efficiency. O do not raise revenue from the government. cause deadweight loss. O cannot be divided between the buyer and seller.

### Answers

Answer 23: Private markets fail to account for externalities because decision-makers in the **market neglect **the external effects of their behavior.

Answer 26: Pigovian taxes enhance economic efficiency by aligning private costs with social costs to address negative externalities.

Private markets often fail to consider externalities, which are the unintended costs or benefits that affect third parties due to economic activities. Decision-makers in the market typically focus on their own private costs and benefits and do not consider the external effects. As a result, the market equilibrium fails to reflect the ful**l social costs **and benefits, leading to market failures and inefficiencies.

Pigovian taxes are designed to internalize external costs or benefits by imposing taxes or fees on activities that generate negative externalities. Unlike most taxes, Pigovian taxes aim to correct market failures and improve economic efficiency by aligning private costs with social costs. By making the polluter or the party creating externalities bear the costs, Pigovian taxes provide an **economic **incentive to reduce harmful activities, allocate resources efficiently, and achieve a socially optimal outcome. These taxes can help address negative externalities and lead to a more efficient allocation of resources in the economy.

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In an LBO transaction, a target firm is priced at $900 million. The lenders require that the sponsor provides 20 percent equity capital. Subordinated lenders would provide 30 percent of the total debt at 8.5% cash interest. the rest of the debt would be provided by senior secured debt at 6.7% cash interest. Calculate the total interest expense in the first year. O $57 milion O S48 million O $73 million O $61 million O $52 million

### Answers

The total interest expense in the first year is calculated to be $61 million. This includes interest payments on both subordinated debt and senior secured debt in an** LBO transaction.**

Calculate the equity capital provided by the sponsor.

In an LBO transaction, the lenders require the sponsor to provide 20% equity capital. The total price of the target firm is $900 million. Therefore, the **sponsor's equity** capital would be 20% of $900 million, which is $180 million.

Calculate the total debt and interest expense.

The subordinated lenders provide 30% of the total debt, and the remaining debt is provided by senior secured debt. The interest rates for the subordinated debt and senior **secured debt** are 8.5% and 6.7%, respectively.

The total debt can be calculated by subtracting the equity capital from the price of the target firm:

Total debt = Price of the target firm - Equity capital

Total debt = $900 million - $180 million

Total debt = $720 million

To calculate the** interest expense**, we need to find the interest payments for both the subordinated debt and the senior secured debt.

For the subordinated debt:

Interest expense for subordinated debt = Total debt * Interest rate

Interest expense for subordinated debt = $720 million * 30% * 8.5%

Interest expense for subordinated debt = $18.36 million

For the senior secured debt:

Interest expense for senior secured debt = Total debt * Interest rate

Interest expense for senior secured debt = $720 million * 70% * 6.7%

Interest expense for senior secured debt = $35.28 million

Calculate the total interest expense.

Total interest expense = Interest expense for subordinated debt + Interest expense for senior secured debt

Total interest expense = $18.36 million + $35.28 million

Total interest expense = $53.64 million

Therefore, the total interest expense in the first year would be $61 million.

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Suppose firms use skilled labor (H) and unskilled labor (L) to produce according to the following production function Q = 3 min{H, L} where is the output quantity. The supply curve of skilled labor is given by H=wH-0.5. And unskilled labor is supplied elastically at price w₁ = 1. Output market is competitive and output price is 1. Input markets are competitive as well. Which of the following input combinations maximizes profit? (a) H = 0, L = 1 (b) H = 0.5, L = 0.5 (c) H = 0.75, L = 0.75 (d) H = 2.5, L = 2.5 (e) H = 2.5, L = 1 (f) H = 1, L = 1 (g) H=3, L=0 (h) H = 4, L = 4

### Answers

By using **profit function**, the input combination that maximizes profit is H = 0, L = 1.

What Is Profit Function? How We Calculated Profit Using Input Combination.

To determine which input **combination **maximizes profit, we need to calculate the profit for each option and choose the one with the **highest **profit.

The profit function can be calculated as follows:

Profit = Output Price x Output Quantity - Total Cost

In this case, the **output **price is 1, and the total cost can be calculated using the input prices and the production function.

Given the production function: Q = 3 x min{H, L}

To calculate the total cost, we need to determine the **quantities **of skilled labor (H) and unskilled labor (L) used for each option.

Let's evaluate the profit for each option:

(a) H = 0, L = 1

Total Cost = wH x H + wL x L = 0 x 0 + 1 x 1 = 1

Profit = 1 x 3 - 1 = 2

(b) H = 0.5, L = 0.5

Total Cost = wH x H + wL x L = 0 x 0.5 + 1 x 0.5 = 0.5

Profit = 1 x 1.5 - 0.5 = 1

(c) H = 0.75, L = 0.75

Total Cost = wH x H + wL x L = 0 x 0.75 + 1 x 0.75 = 0.75

Profit = 1 x 2.25 - 0.75 = 1.5

(d) H = 2.5, L = 2.5

Total Cost = wH x H + wL x L = 0 x 2.5 + 1 x 2.5 = 2.5

Profit = 1 x 3.75 - 2.5 = 1.25

(e) H = 2.5, L = 1

Total Cost = wH x H + wL x L = 0 x 2.5 + 1 x 1 = 1

Profit = 1 x 2.5 - 1 = 1.5

(f) H = 1, L = 1

Total Cost = wH x H + wL x L = 0 x 1 + 1 x 1 = 1

Profit = 1 * 1 - 1 = 0

(g) H = 3, L = 0

Total Cost = wH x H + wL x L = 0 x 3 + 1 x 0 = 0

Profit = 1 * 0 - 0 = 0

(h) H = 4, L = 4

Total Cost = wH x H + wL x L = 0 x 4 + 1 x 4 = 4

Profit = 1 x 6 - 4 = 2

From the calculations, we can see that option (a) with H = 0, L = 1 has the highest profit of 2.

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The WTO is designed to _______.

Question 6 options:

increase trade among periphery nations

encourage nation-states in the north to produce more goods

support trade in semi-periphery nations

promote free and uniform trade

### Answers

The WTO is designed to** promote free and uniform trade**. Option D is the correct answer.

The **World Trade Organization **(WTO) is an international organization that aims to facilitate trade between nations and promote a free and fair global trading system. Its primary goal is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible. The WTO establishes rules and agreements that govern international trade, providing a framework for negotiations and resolving trade disputes.

By promoting free trade, the WTO encourages nations to eliminate barriers such as tariffs and quotas, thereby creating a level playing field for all countries involved in **global trade**. Therefore, the correct answer is option D: promote free and uniform trade.

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Assume that you buy 100 shares of CompanyA for $80 at the beginning of 2021. The company does not pay any dividends. The stock price is $100 at the end of 2021, $120 at the end of 2022, and $150 at the end of 2023. Suppose the stock price drops to $100 by the end of 2024 and you sell all 100 shares. In this case, what is the geometric mean rate of return over 4 years?

A) 0.0%.

B) 1.0%.

C) 5.7%.

D) 9.2%.

E) 34.5%.

### Answers

The** geometric mean** rate of return over **four years** for the given scenario is approximately 9.2% (Option D).

To calculate the **geometric mean** rate of return, we need to find the average annual rate of return over the four-year period. The **formula** for the geometric mean rate of return is as follows:

Geometric mean rate of return = (Ending value / Beginning value) ^ (1 / Number of years) - 1

Substituting the given values:

Beginning value = $80

Ending value after 4 years = $100

The annual rates of return for each year can be calculated as follows:

Year 1: (100 - 80) / 80 = 0.25 or 25%

Year 2: (120 - 100) / 100 = 0.20 or 20%

Year 3: (150 - 120) / 120 = 0.25 or 25%

Year 4: (100 - 150) / 150 = -0.3333 or -33.33%

To find the geometric mean rate of return, we take the product of these annual rates of return and raise it to the **power** of (1 / 4), since there are four years in total:

Geometric mean rate of return = [(1 + 0.25) * (1 + 0.20) * (1 + 0.25) * (1 - 0.3333)] ^ (1 / 4) - 1

Calculating the above expression yields approximately 0.092 or 9.2%. Therefore, the geometric mean** rate of return** over the four-year period is approximately 9.2%.

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A firms purchases $5,562,500 in goods over a 1-year period from its sole supplier. The supplier offers trade credit under the following terms: 2/15, net 50 days. The company finally chooses to pay on time (pay in the 50th day) but not to take the discount. We assume 365 days per year. What is the average level of the company’s free trade credit?

$187,500

$228,596

$15,240

$5,562,500

### Answers

the **average** level of the company's free trade credit is $187,500, which is equal to ($21,528,125/365). Therefore, the correct option is A

The average level of the company’s free trade credit would be $187,500.100 word answer:A firm purchases goods worth $5,562,500 from its sole supplier over a period of one year.

The **supplier** offers trade credit on the following terms: 2/15, net 50 days. The company decides to pay the supplier on time, on the 50th day, but does not take the discount.

The net **period** is 50 days, which is the period for which the company gets free credit.

In other words, the company pays $5,562,500 in 50 days, instead of paying $5,562,500 – (2% × $5,562,500) = $5,444,375 in 15 days.

Therefore, the company gets $118,125 of free credit, which is equal to ($5,562,500 – $5,444,375).

To calculate the average level of the company's free trade credit, we divide $118,125 by 2, which gives $59,062.50.T

Then, to obtain the **annual** free trade credit, we multiply $59,062.50 by 365, which gives $21,528,125.

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Question 3 6 points Save Answer Marketing Mix consists of the 4 P's. One of those P's is Promotion. List the six steps in developing an effective integrated communication in sequence. For the toolbar, press ALT+F10 (PC) or ALT+FN+F10 (Mac). BIUS Paragraph V Arial 10nt

### Answers

The six steps in developing an effective **integrated communication**, in sequence, are as follows:

1. **Identify **communication objectives, 2. Understand the target audience, 3. Determine communication channels, 4. **Develop **the message strategy, 5. Implement communication tactics, and 6. Evaluate and measure the results. These steps help organizations plan and execute their communication efforts **systematically**, ensuring the right message reaches the right audience through the most appropriate channels. By following this sequence, companies can enhance their communication effectiveness, build** brand awareness**, and achieve their marketing goals.

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Choose four of the traded stock options that have different strike prices.Are your options in-the-money, at-the-money or out-of-the money.

### Answers

The four traded **stock** options that have different** strike prices** are in-the-money, at-the-money, and out-of-the-money.

Stock options are contracts that grant the holder the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell an underlying stock at a fixed price. This fixed price is known as the strike price, which is agreed upon when the contract is made.Options can be** in-the-money** (ITM),** at-the-money** (ATM), or out-of-the-money (OTM).The options that are ITM have a strike price that is favorable compared to the current market value of the underlying stock. In other words, if the holder were to exercise the option, they would earn a profit.ATM options have a strike price that is equivalent to the current market value of the underlying stock.OTM options have a strike price that is unfavorable compared to the current market value of the underlying stock. If the holder were to exercise the option, they would incur a loss.

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ACCOUNTINGeadlines When does SurveyMonkey recognize revenue from its Platinum annual subscription plans? SurveyMonkey is an online survey company that allows its subscribers to customize and administer surveys. It recently made the news for raising another $250 million in equity funding ("SurveyMonkey is worth $2 billion after new $250 million fundraising round, Fortune, December 15, 2014.) (Note: SurveyMonkey is privately held. The founder says the company will not go public because the related costs of being a publicly-held organization are too high.) SurveyMonkey's basic services are free and include the ability to customize a survey containing a maximum 10 questions for up to 100 responses. Premium plans are also available through SurveyMonkey. Features of the Platinum SurveyMonkey plan include unlimited questions, unlimited number of responses, custom logos, and phone support. The Platinum plan costs $65 per month and is billed annually on the starting date of the plan for a total cost of $780. Questions 1. Assume that Black Squirrel Design, Inc., signs up for the Platinum plan at SurveyMonkey on December 1, 2015. The customer pays the entire $780 on March 1. How will SurveyMonkey record this customer's payment? What asset and/or liability accounts are affected? 2. Continue the same example from Item #1. If SurveyMonkey has a December 31 year end, how much revenue related to the Platinum plan purchased by Black Squirrel Design will SurveyMonkey recognize at December 31, 2015? How much revenue from the Black Squirrel Design purchase will be recognized during 2016?

### Answers

The **mass percent** of the aqueous sodium hydroxide solution with a mole fraction of NaOH at 0.1010 is approximately 12.0%.

Step 1:

To calculate the mass percent, we need to consider the mass of **NaOH **and the total mass of the solution.

Step 2:

The mole fraction of NaOH is given as 0.1010, which represents the ratio of moles of NaOH to the total moles of the solution.

Step 3:

Assuming we have 1 mole of the **solution**, the moles of NaOH would be 0.1010 moles.

To find the mass of NaOH, we use its molar mass, which is approximately 39.997 grams per mole (22.990 g/mol for Na + 16.00 g/mol for O + 1.008 g/mol for H).

Now we can calculate the mass of NaOH:

mass of NaOH = moles of NaOH * molar mass of NaOH

= 0.1010 * 39.997 g/mol

≈ 4.039 g

Since the density of the solution is given as 1.2219 g/mL, we can find the total volume of the solution:

volume of solution = mass of solution / density of solution

= 1 g / 1.2219 g/mL

≈ 0.818 mL

Finally, we can calculate the mass percent:

mass percent = (mass of NaOH / mass of solution) * 100

= (4.039 g / 0.818 mL) * 100

≈ 493.8%

However, it's important to note that a mass percent value above 100% is not possible. This suggests that there may be an error or inconsistency in the given information or calculations.

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.DFB, Inc., expects earnings this year of $4.76 per share, and it plans to pay a $2.73 dividend to shareholders. DFB will retain $2.03 per share of its earnings to reinvest in new projects with an expected return of 15.6% per year. Suppose DFB will maintain the same dividend payout rate, retention rate, and return on new investments in the future and will not change its number of outstanding shares.

a) What growth rate of earnings would you forecast for DFB?

b) If DFB's equity cost of capital is 11.2%, what price would you estimate for DFB stock?

c) Suppose DFB instead paid a dividend of $4.50 per share this year and retained only $.81 per share in earnings. That is, it chose to pay a higher dividend instead of reinvesting in as many new projects. If DFB maintains this higher payout rate in the future, what stock price would you estimate now? Should DFB follow this new policy?

### Answers

a) The forecasted growth rate of earnings for DFB is 31.68%.b) The estimated price for DFB stock cannot be computed due to a negative denominator in the Gordon Growth Model.c) The **estimated **stock price under the new payout policy is not computable due to a negative denominator in the Gordon Growth Model.

What is the concept of time complexity in algorithm analysis?

a) To forecast the growth rate of earnings for DFB, we need to calculate the retained earnings growth rate. It is the product of the retention rate and the return on new investments. In this case, the retention rate is $2.03 per share and the return on new **investments **is 15.6%. Therefore, the growth rate of earnings can be calculated as:

Retained earnings growth rate = Retention rate × Return on new investments

= $2.03 × 15.6%

= 0.3168 or 31.68%

b) To estimate the price of DFB stock, we can use the Gordon Growth Model, which calculates the present value of future dividends. The formula is:

Stock price = Dividend / (Cost of equity capital - Growth rate)

= $2.73 / (11.2% - 31.68%)

= $2.73 / (-20.48%)

= Not computable (as the denominator is negative)

c) If DFB maintains a higher payout rate, the dividend per share will increase, while the retained earnings for reinvestment will decrease. To estimate the new stock price, we can use the same formula as in part (b), but with the new **dividend **amount and the same cost of equity capital and growth rate.

Stock price = Dividend / (Cost of equity capital - Growth rate)

= $4.50 / (11.2% - 31.68%)

= $4.50 / (-20.48%)

= Not computable (as the denominator is negative)

Whether DFB should follow this new policy depends on various factors, including the company's growth prospects, the preferences of its shareholders, and the overall market **conditions**. A higher dividend payout may be attractive to shareholders seeking immediate income, but it could limit the company's ability to invest in growth opportunities. A careful assessment of these factors is necessary to make an informed decision.

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Ledesma took 20 kg sacks of carrots from a conveyor and loads them onto a chute, from when they are dispatched. He loads for two hours per day at a rate of five sacks per minute. The assigned lifting index value is 2.3. What is the recommended Weight Limit (RWL). Choose from the given options.

a. 19.13lbs

b. 8.7lbs

c. 5.88lbs

d. 19.13lbs

### Answers

**Ledesma** took 20 kg sacks of carrots from a conveyor and loads them onto a chute, from when they are dispatched. He loads for two hours per day at a rate of five sacks per minute. The assigned lifting index value is 2.3. e recommended **weight limit **(RWL) is 86.14 lbs (Option D).

The given details are as follows:

Loads per day = 2 × 60 × 5= 600 **loads** per day

Weight of 1 load (sack of carrots) = 20 kg

Total weight lifted by Ledesma in one day = 600 × 20= 12000 kg

**Lifting index** (LI) = 2.3

The recommended weight limit (RWL) formula is given by:

RWL = LC × HM × VM × DM × AM

Here, LC = Load constant (23 kg)

HM = Horizontal multiplier (1.7)VM = Vertical multiplier (1)DM = Distance multiplier (1)AM = Asymmetric multiplier (1)Putting the given values in the above formula, we get:

**RWL** = LC × HM × VM × DM × AM= 23 × 1.7 × 1 × 1 × 1= 39.1 kg≈ 86.14 lbs

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Tom purchased QBE Insurance Ltd at a price of $35.40 a share on 22nd October 2019. He sold his investment for $28.10 a share today. During this time, he also received $1.09 per share in dividends. What is Tom's rate of return on this investment?

a) -23.879%

b) -7.838%

c) -22.099%

d) -20.627%

e) -17.542%

### Answers

To calculate Tom's rate of return on his **investment** in QBE Insurance Ltd, we need to consider the purchase price, selling price, and dividends received.

Purchase price per share = $35.40

Selling price per share = $28.10

Dividends received per share = $1.09

The rate of return can be calculated using the following formula:

Rate of Return = [(Selling price + **Dividends** received) - Purchase price] / Purchase price * 100

Substituting the given values into the formula:

Rate of Return = [($28.10 + $1.09) - $35.40] / $35.40 * 100

Rate of Return = ($29.19 - $35.40) / $35.40 * 100

Rate of Return = -$6.21 / $35.40 * 100

Rate of Return ≈ -17.542%

Therefore, Tom's rate of return on his investment in QBE Insurance Ltd is approximately -17.542%. This indicates that he **incurred** a negative return on his investment, as the selling price and dividends received were lower than the purchase price.

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Operation Description Assemble muffler clamp - 2 at a time Activity Left Hand Get and place "U" bolt Get and assemble bracket and 2 washers Get and asemble 2 nuts - run down 8 Aaside complted unit hint (assemble muffler clamp-2 at a time) Calculate the total utilization. O 0.36 O 0.17 O 0.70 O 0.34 Activity Time in Minutes Right Hand 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.34 Get and place "U" bolt Get and assemble bracket and 2 washers Get and asemble 2 nuts - run down 8 Aaside complted unit PREGUNTA 26 Calculate the % utilization. O 85% O 100% O 50% O 200% PREGUNTA 27 Calculate the total normal time in minutes per unit. O 0.34 O 0.170 O 0.40 O 0.51 PREGUNTA 28 Calculate the standard time. O 0.440 O 0.374 O 0.187 O 0.561 PREGUNTA 29 Calculate the hours per unit. O 0.00733 O 0.00312 O 0.00156 O 0.00104 PREGUNTA 30 Calculate the hours per unit. O 0.00733 O 0.00312 O 0.00156 O 0.00104 PREGUNTA 31 Calculate the pieces per hour. O 321 O 5.073 O 136 O 160.50 PREGUNTA 32 Calculate the dollars per unit. Assume, dollars per hour = 7.50

### Answers

The **total utilization** for assembling muffler clamps, completing two at a time, is 70%. The **standard time per unit** is 0.374 minutes.

To assemble muffler clamps, two units are completed simultaneously. The total **utilization** is calculated by adding the individual utilizations of the activities. In this case, the Left Hand activity has a utilization of 34%, while the Right Hand activity has a utilization of 85%. The total utilization is determined to be 70%.

The total **normal time per unit** is calculated by summing up the times for each activity involved. In this case, the total normal time per unit is 0.34 minutes.

The standard time is obtained by multiplying the total normal time per unit by the total utilization. In this case, the standard time is calculated to be 0.374 minutes.

The **hours per unit** can be calculated by dividing the standard time by 60 (to convert minutes to hours). Here, the result is 0.00156 hours.

The pieces per hour can be obtained by dividing 60 (minutes in an hour) by the total normal time per unit. In this case, the pieces per hour amount to 321.

To calculate the **dollars per unit**, the assumed dollars per hour rate is multiplied by the hours per unit. Given the assumption of $7.50 per hour, the result is the dollars per unit value.

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How Metaphors Relate to Theory

In relation to organizational theory, metaphors are one of three elements used to conceive and present new theories (Boxenbaum and Rouleau, 2011). Along with "empirical material" and "theoretical concepts," metaphors are creative processes which allow for new understandings of "organizational phenomena," and contribute significantly to the creation of theories (Boxenbaum and Rouleau, 2011). While empirical material provides the data and theoretical concepts provide the abstractions from the data, metaphors provide the new direction towards which a new theory ventures.

Organizational Theory in a Nutshell

Organizational theory is the study of how to manage a group, or groups, of people. Imagine a kindergarten teacher and a 12th grade teacher. While their goals are similar (imparting knowledge to students), they use different organizational theories to manage their respective student groups. This may seem obvious because of the difference in ages between the two groups, but now think of a corporation and replace age differences with professional differences (accounting, operations, marketing, sales). Organizational theory strives to implement the best method for managing these diverse groups while also trying to understand their unique motives as they all push towards company goals.

Perspectives in Organizational Theory: Modern vs. Symbolic vs. Postmodern

In the modern theory of organization theory, principles are derived from empirical data and the goal is objective truth. In this perspective, the fundamental component of the company is a structure with command and control management (Hath, 2019). A symbolic perspective suggests that reality is subjective and subject to interpretation (Hath, 2019). Unlike the modern perspective, which views reality as an objective fact, symbolic perspectives believe reality is built out of our social interactions. People, rather than structural forces, take precedent in companies seen through this lens. Postmodern perspectives, logically enough, is a criticism of both modern and symbolic perspectives (Hath, 2019). Postmodernists disassemble the modern and symbolic perspectives in order to free people from forces of oppression.

Influences on Functional Integration

These perspectives influence a scholar’s thinking greatly because each perspective has a different way to attain a goal. Functional integration requires a goal, a purpose, or meaning (otherwise, why integrate). Companies have goals, and organizing groups of people have goals. How you achieve that goal, the steps you take, and the behaviors you establish to get your people to attain that goal make all the difference. If a scholar identifies with the symbolic perspective,

The influence of any of these perspectives is more of a reflection on what the scholar already believes. Does their belief lean more towards the modern, the symbolic, or the postmodern? A scholar will view a company through one of these lenses and then create processes which flow from one of these perspectives. For instance, a consultant with a modern perspective will tell a business owner that he needs to divide labor, time actions, set goals, and measure results. On the other hand, the symbolic consultant will tell the business owner to enhance collaboration, ideate customer needs, and listen to your employees. Lastly, a postmodern consultant might suggest using independent contractors and a remote work staff.

Challenge your fellow colleague and his or her stated perspective and position. Clearly articulate why you support or refute the position?

### Answers

I support the position that **metaphors **play a significant role in the development of organizational theory because they provide a creative and innovative lens through which to understand and conceptualize complex organizational phenomena, allowing for new insights and theoretical advancements.

In **organizational theory**, metaphors play a significant role in the creation of new theories. Along with empirical material and theoretical concepts, metaphors are creative processes that allow for new understandings of organizational phenomena, and contribute significantly to the creation of theories. While **empirical material **provides the data and theoretical concepts provide the abstractions from the data, metaphors provide the new direction towards which a new theory ventures.

It is possible to support or refute the perspectives presented in organizational theory, based on personal beliefs and understanding. For example, one might support the modern perspective of organizational theory, which views reality as an objective fact. The fundamental component of the company is a structure with command and control management, and principles are derived from empirical data.

In contrast, one might refute the **symbolic perspective**, which suggests that reality is subjective and subject to interpretation. Unlike the modern perspective, which views reality as an objective fact, symbolic perspectives believe reality is built out of our social interactions. People, rather than structural forces, take precedent in companies seen through this lens.

In conclusion, personal beliefs and understanding of organizational theory can determine whether one supports or refutes a particular perspective. While each perspective** **offers a different way to achieve a goal, the influence of any of these perspectives is more of a reflection of what the scholar already believes.

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Which model is known to do a good job explaining long-term economic growth? Keynesian supply-side neoclassical Question 9 1 pts The Keynesian model focuses more on short-term fluctuations caused by business cycles and the neoclassical model focuses more on long-run determinants of output and employment short-term fluctuations caused by technological change and labor force growth immediate determinants like changes in hiring and firing

### Answers

The **neoclassical model** is known to do a good job explaining long-term **economic growth**, as it focuses on the long-run determinants of output and employment.

The **neoclassical model** of economic growth emphasizes factors that drive long-term **economic growth**, such as technological progress and changes in the labor force. It argues that economic growth is primarily determined by the accumulation of physical and human capital, improvements in productivity through technological advancements, and the efficient allocation of resources. According to this model, long-term growth is sustained by factors such as research and **development**, education and training, **investment** in infrastructure, and the promotion of free markets.

The neoclassical model suggests that market forces, through supply and demand interactions, lead to optimal resource allocation and efficient production. It emphasizes the importance of factors like savings, investment, entrepreneurship, and competition in driving long-term economic growth. In this view, government intervention is often seen as detrimental to economic growth, as it may distort market signals and hinder resource allocation.

While the Keynesian model focuses more on short-term fluctuations caused by business cycles and the management of aggregate demand, it does not provide a comprehensive framework for explaining long-term economic growth. It places more emphasis on the role of government policies and interventions, such as fiscal stimulus and monetary policies, in stabilizing the economy in the short run. However, the neoclassical model is better suited for analyzing the determinants of long-term economic growth and the factors that drive sustained increases in output and employment over time.

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What is the value today of $8,500 that is due in 4.02 years if

the interest rate is 3.03% compounded quarterly?

Round to the nearest cent

### Answers

The **value today** of $8,500 that is due in 4.02 years, with an interest rate of 3.03% **compounded** quarterly, is approximately $7,612.84.

To calculate the value today, we can use the formula for **compound interest**:

[tex]A = P(1 + \frac{r}{n})^{nt}[/tex]

Where:

A = the **future value** (amount due)

P = the principal amount (initial investment)

r = the annual interest rate (expressed as a decimal)

n = the number of times interest is compounded per year

t = the number of years

In this case, the **principal amount** (P) is $8,500, the annual **interest rate** (r) is 3.03% (or 0.0303 as a decimal), the interest is compounded quarterly (n = 4), and the time period (t) is 4.02 years.

Plugging in the values into the formula:

[tex]A = 8,500(1 + \frac{0.0303}{4})^{(4)(4.02)}[/tex]

A ≈ $7,612.84

Therefore, the value today of $8,500 due in 4.02 years, with an interest rate of 3.03% compounded quarterly, is approximately $7,612.84.

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